The lower castes in the Hindu tradition have been characterised by a new assertiveness since the 1960s. By the early 2000s, India's most populous state Uttar Pradesh was controlled by lower-caste politicians. Lower caste representation in national politics is growing inexorably. The effect of this trend is a growing, genuine 'democratisation' of India.
Since the 1960s a new assertiveness has characterized India's formerly silent majority, the lower castes that comprise more than two-thirds of the population. Today India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, is controlled by lower-caste politicians, as is Bihar, and lower-caste representation in national politics is growing inexorably. Jaffrelot argues that this trend constitutes a genuine "democratization" of India and that the social and economic effects of this "silent revolution" are bound to multiply in the years to come.